Thursday, March 29, 2007

Why Traders Plan Trades But Don't Trade Their Plans

Consider the following advice:

* Trade what you see;

* Trade the plan, and plan the trade;

* Don't let emotions interfere with trading;

* Don't overthink trades; go with your feel for the market.

All of these are reasonable in themselves, but they also contradict one another. Should you shut off your emotions or go with your feel for the market? Should you stick with your trading plans or get in/out of the market when you see an unexpected development?

If you read my last post, you can see that the reason for the contradictions is that the advice pertains to different time frames. The very short term trader--the scalper or market maker--can't afford to overthink trades. He or she also can't afford the luxury of a well laid-out trading plan. Rather, that trader needs to become so familiar with short-term trading patterns that he/she embeds them in perception itself. Instead of seeing 2400 contracts at the bid and 800 at the offer, for instance, the trader sees a pattern of growing contracts at the bid as the market repeatedly--but unsuccessfully--attempts to penetrate that bid price. That pattern in the order book, occurring in the context of a market that has already declined by 1-2 ES points, might well signify to the scalper that a short-term bottom is forming and lead to a quick trade for a few ticks once short covering occurs.

Conversely, the longer-term trader might develop an idea that the market is weakening over the past several days and that we're likely, in today's market, to take out yesterday's low price. The trader waits for early trade to confirm that buying is unable to take the market above its overnight high and then sells the market. A couple of ticks above the overnight high is the stop loss point, a couple of ticks below the previous day's low is the profit target for the first half of the position, and then the trader sits back and lets the trade work out. That's planning the trade and trading the plan, taking the emotion of moment-to-moment trade--for the most part--out of the equation.

What is good trading in the first mode--getting out, say, if large trades occur at the bid--would be getting scared out of a trade plan in the second mode. What is signal to the short-term trader is noise to the longer timeframe participant. That is why traders feel as though they sabotage themselves when they put the trade on in one mode (by feel or by explicit plan), but then manage the trade in the different mode.

So here's a good question: If you do truly trade a plan, what percentage of your exits have you out: a) at your price target; b) at your stop loss; c) somewhere between the two. If a large proportion of exits qualify for option c), then there is a good likelihood that you're managing the trade by feel and not by your plan. While there are occasions in which that can minimize losses and lock in gains, over time--if your plan is a solid one--you will tend to take yourself out of trades with small losses that ultimately could have been winners, and you will tend to cut winners short of their potential.

Notice what I'm saying: If you are managing your planned trade more often by feel than by plan, you are expressing--through your behavior--a lack of confidence in that plan. If the plan is solid, it should be worth following more often than not. If you're frequently not managing the trade the way you put it on, you're using short-term criteria to bail out of the plan (i.e., weighting short-term criteria more highly than plan criteria).

Now there could be all sorts of reasons for this. It could be a plain vanilla anxiety problem that could benefit from behavioral techniques, such as relaxation training and biofeedback. It could be faulty planning: perhaps position sizing is too large or stop loss points are too far away for your personal level of risk or account size. It could also be that you're trying to trade a longer time frame, when your cognitive skills and style better suit you to a shorter one. Too, traders often bail out of plans when they have not had sufficient first-hand experience with those plans and thus naturally lack confidence. This often occurs when you try to trade someone else's plan/setup without having researched or practiced it extensively yourself.

My general advice is to practice the behavioral methods, cut your size considerably (perhaps even going into simulation trading mode), and then religiously follow your plan trade after trade after trade. That will tell you if the plan truly suits you, and it will also give you the first hand realization that the plan is worth following. You can't expect yourself to tune out noise on the short timeframe unless you have a high degree of conviction in what you see and plan in the larger picture.

But here's a second exercise--one that I've adapted from Linda Raschke--that can be very helpful in dealing with information processing challenges in trading. Select a time frame to practice. You can do this by trading in simulation mode and setting your charts to 1 minute, 5 minute, 15 minute, 30 minute, or 60 minute bars. You have to stick with the setting you choose throughout the trading session. No toggling to shorter or longer time frames. Then set your alarm clock for a random time in the next few minutes. When the alarm rings, you have to enter the market within the next bar period (i.e., if you're trading 5 min bars, you must enter in the next five minutes). You can either sell or buy the market, but you have to enter, and you have to manage the trade at your chosen time frame. Moreover, you have to hold your trade for at least one entire bar period (i.e., if you're looking at 5 minute bars, you hold for at least 5 minutes, etc.), but no more than two. That means being prepared, in advance, with support/resistance levels or indicator levels that can serve as stops and as profit targets.

Reset your alarm for another random time in the near future once you exit a trade until the day's trade is complete. This will have you trading much more actively if you're trading 1 min or 5 min bars than if you're trading 30 min or hourly bars.

Make sure you trade each time setting (the 1 min, 5 min, etc bars) many times over many days. Force yourself to perceive/plan, enter, manage, and exit trades like a short-term trader and like a longer-term one. Feel free to look at whatever news, indicators, or other data you ordinarily consider during trading, as long as the data are not derived from shorter-term bars than the ones you're trading. Over time, what you'll find out is the kind of trading--and hence the kind of information processing--that you're best at and that is most comfortable for you. Are you best and most at ease when making fewer trades and planning these in detail? Are you in your element when you're reading short-term patterns from minute to minute? Which feels most natural for you? Which keeps you in your "zone"?

Traders rarely have subconscious desire to sabotage themselves. We do ourselves in when we don't truly know who we are, what we're best at, and thus what would provide us with the greatest degree of conviction and confidence.


John said...

In the weblog your Pivot Points appear to be behind by a day (you repeated Tuesday). Am I seeing this right? (Sorry about being off your topic but didn't know any other way to reach you for this.)

Brett Steenbarger, Ph.D. said...

Hi John,

My bad. The labels for the days are off, but the pivots are correct. I'll correct ASAP--


MIsstrade said...


I was wondering what your personal response was to trading one time frame and picking the buy/sell and getting out before 2 periods expired? I have never tried such an excercise. Do you limit the number of attempts per day/week/month?


bhong4664 said...

Thanks for the great post. A concrete and succinct observation without the Freudian psychobabble that trader's coaches like to use. It's nice to see a real psychologist's approach to analyzing and suggesting corrective measures.

Brett Steenbarger, Ph.D. said...

Hi Misstrade,

The idea is to try out each time frame enough times across enough market conditions to know whether or not it works for you. Making trades every few minutes is quite different from making them every few hours. I personally have found the very short time frames too frenetic, a major factor in my widening my time frame to intraday swings, with 1-2 trades per day. That enables me to play to my strengths (incorporating research into short-term patterns).


Brett Steenbarger, Ph.D. said...

Thanks, Bruce. Actually, I wish more trading psychology types really knew and understood Freud. If they did, there would be less pop psych psychobabble. Topic for a future post!


AnaTrader said...

Brett, talking of trading times frames, I have been taught I need to decide first and foremost, what time frame I would like to trade in.

As I trade ES, I adopt the Cynthia Kase study, which takes the pit session of 6.5 hours which I divide by 5 to get about 80 mins, which again subdivided by by 5 to get about 15 mins , and finally subdivided by 5 to get 3 mins.

So I have 3 charts, ie 80 mins, 15 mins and 3 mins to turn to for trend, setup and zone, and entry signal, respectively.

Caveat: once I have decided on trading intraday, I should stick to this plan and not change to swing or position, using this plan of trading time frames.

Hope this is one way of looking at trading time frames.

Brett Steenbarger, Ph.D. said...

Hi AnaTrader,

Thanks; the division of time frames makes sense. I think where the problem sometimes arises for traders is that they place a trade based on a longer-term time frame and then micromanage it on a shorter one.


AnaTrader said...

Brett, I just received a private email from one of your readers to explain what Negative Development is all about.

Hope you don't mind my posting here to explain - Negative Development to those who read my comments some time back.

In a nutshell, Negative Development is a set of established patterns that fails, like a Head & Shoulders pattern, which fails to go as expected.

Hsieh hsieh ni.

Brett Steenbarger, Ph.D. said...

Hi AnaTrader,

Yes, when markets have a historical tendency and then don't perform according to that tendency, that in itself is very useful information and tells you much about the current conditions. Thanks for the explanation.


TWC Futures said...

Great article. I will be adding a KPI metric to my 2010 plan that tracks exits at target/stop or not. Seeking 85% goal to start.